U.S. Food and Drug Administration
What is a marketed use of genetic engineering? A. insecticides B. insulin C. herbicides D. cleaning up oil spills E. all of these are correct 2. What is a point defect? A. An enzyme patrolling the cytoplasm. B. A mistake in the order of DNA bases. C. The byproduct of cellular respiration. D. . Genetic engineering, the artificial manipulation, modification, and recombination of DNA or other nucleic acid molecules to modify an organism. The term is generally used to refer specifically to methods of recombinant DNA technology. Learn about the history, techniques, and applications of genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering is the process which allows scientists to alter the structure of genes in a living organism. Through the use of deliberate modifications that occur because of a direct manipulation of DNA, it becomes possible to create changes in life forms to benefit each species and any others that may interact with them in some way.
We often look at the science of genetic engineering through the lens of human potential or food access. It is essential to remember that the tools offered through this process can benefit almost every aspect of life in some way. One of the first ways that we began to benefit from this approach was to use bacterial cells in a way where they could begin producing human insulin.
Before genetic engineering made this treatment possible, diabetic patients were being treated with pig insulin. Not only did this reduce the number of adverse reactions to the treatments offered because of the immune system responses involved, but it also made it possible to treat more people while reducing the burdens placed on the animals.
The technology of genetic engineering has the potential to save millions of lives. It also has the potential to cause significant harm. That is why a careful evaluation of these pros and cons is essential as we begin to move forward in this field. It can improve the nutrition, taste, and growth rate of crops. Crops like tomatoes, soy beans, rice, and potatoes are currently going through the genetic engineering process as a way to obtain additional strains that provide better nutritional qualities and increase yields.
This process would also make it possible for the items to grow on lands which are not presently suitable for cultivation.
By shifting the genetic structure of these crops, it becomes possible to engineer the foods in ways that help them to taste better and become better for us. By providing this product to regions of the world where populations are not getting enough of this nutrient, we can help people lead happier, fuller lives. A lack of this vitamin can eventually lead to blindness. It can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance.
The genetic engineering process makes it possible to create crops that are resistant to pests even when they are in seed form. An example of this advantage involves the plant gene At-DBF2.
When engineers insert this gene into tobacco or tomato cells, the plants can begin to increase their endurance levels to handle harsh climatic conditions and poor soil nutrition. This process can even be used to reduce the levels of food spoilage which occur because the food products last longer on store shelves. It can help use to begin producing new foods. Genetic engineering gives us the opportunity to begin producing new substances that can enter the human food chain.
We can add nutrients, proteins, and other items that populations need when food insecurity exists to encourage a better overall level of health for each individual.
We can even use this process to introduce medications to specific populations who may need them, creating the possibility of an edible vaccine. It is a process that could improve human health at the cellular level. Genetic engineering offers us the opportunity to improve human health because what tax form do i use for w2 and 1099 can correct the sequences and chromosomes which lead to serious health conditions for some individuals.
This technology gives us the option to modify genotypes before someone is born as a way to manipulate specific traits in that future human potentiality.
It could correct birth defects, eliminate genetic disease before it starts, or become the foundation of treatments to help those who already have a correctible condition. It can boost the positive traits in every life form. The goal of genetic engineering is to create a better world by boosting the positive traits that every life form has at how to make a homemade spiderman costume cellular level. We would keep these enhanced changes while reducing or eliminating the ones which contribute to our weaknesses as a species.
It can be used to help current food resources to begin producing more of them. What is a marketed use of genetic engineering we use genetic engineering on existing food resources, then it becomes possible to increase the amount of production that is available in each sector.
Dairy cows can be engineered at the how to know if you have scoliosis level to how to remove milky film from glassware more milk that farmers would collect each day. Sheep can be altered so that they produce more wool and can need sheering more often.
This process makes it possible for us to create more resources from what we already have, making it possible to feed a growing population. It would help to improve the quality of the soil. One of the ways that agricultural industries have promoted higher levels of food access is through the use of artificial fertilizers in cropland soil. Adding nitrates and other nutrients makes it possible to grow items in places where it would normally be unsuitable.
When too many of these items get into the soil, the salts wash through into local water supplies. By creating crops that naturally resist pasts and weeds, we can improve the groundwater tables because each item grown is genetically engineered to adapt to the conditions that are present.
It follows the same processes we already use to create new resources. Have you ever taken the pollen from one flower and given it to another? This process can help you to create a hybrid plant — a new form of life. Genetic engineering takes this principle to the next level. By identifying specific traits and seeking them out in others, it becomes possible to create specific results that benefit society in numerous ways.
It would reduce the cost of food for the average household. Genetic engineering gives us an opportunity to increase the what is a marketed use of genetic engineering of food that is available to communities around the world. It also gives us a chance to create products that have a longer shelf life to reduce waste in the agricultural industry.
This combination of factors influences the law of supply and demand. When there is more available, then the prices for each item cost less.
It would ensure that our food supply remains accessible. When the state of Texas endured one of its most significant droughts beginning inthe agricultural losses were staggering. Global warming is a trend that is happening, no matter what we may think is causing it.
The science of genetic engineering makes it possible to develop food resources that can counter these changing conditions without requiring a significant alteration in lifestyle or working habits.
It gives us access to additional products that are useful. When we have crops that produce higher yields, then it becomes possible to create additional products that fall outside of the human food chain. When there is an excess of corn or sugarcane available in the market, then these items can be used to create fuels like ethanol.
We can grow enough food to produce feed for livestock that support our modern nutritional food profile. Because we have access to more, it allows us to create innovative items that can help the world in a variety of ways. It allows patients to be treated with their own cells. Although medical science is progressing by leaps and bounds, we are still running into one critical issue. Any treatment process that involves a difference in genetic material creates this possibility.
We currently treat individuals in what is the best pet to buy situation with immunosuppressants as a way to help them regain their lives.
By taking a genetic engineering approach, we would be able to create outcomes for patients by using their own cells, thereby reducing the risk of rejection. Although immunosuppressants are effective at what they do, this medication can also put people at a higher risk for certain illnesses and infections. Reducing the need for this treatment option could help to restore health while also reducing the overall cost of treatment over the lifetime of the individual.
It can be used to improve our current pharmaceuticals. We can also use genetic engineering processes as a way to improve the drugs which are currently available to patients right now. The science behind this approach could help make these pharmaceutical options become safer and more effective. We are already seeing the benefits with this tool in human growth hormone treatments. When this technology applies to the thousands of potential drugs that people use daily, it becomes possible to treat health issues with fewer resources.
That could eventually reduce the cost of care for everyone. It can increase the number of croplands we have available. There are two potential ways to benefit from this advantage of genetic engineering.
The first advantage is an ability to produce more food on less land. Farmers could create a how to fix xbox slim open tray problem yield using fewer resources, allowing them to plant a variety of crops that can diversify their product line for the season. It could also be useful in allowing certain areas to remain fallow for a season to help with natural soil restoration.
The second advantage is that when seeds are specifically engineered to work in a unique environment, we can start using spaces that would normally not be considered an arable region. It can create less nutritional value in some foods. When we create products through genetic engineering that make it possible to bring new products to the market faster than before, then there is an excellent chance that the item in question will have a lower nutritional value instead of a better one.
When we develop products that grow big fast, it takes more food to create the same nutritional response. Broilers from the chicken industry are an excellent example of this disadvantage. Their what is a marketed use of genetic engineering to market has reduced by 30 days in the last years, but this benefit has come at the expense of higher fat content in the food.
It creates the potential for problematic pathogens. With the introduction of antibiotics, and we have seen how quickly bacteria can adapt to changing circumstances. Viruses adapt just as quickly. When we create changes to the genetic structure of life, then we are encouraging an evolution in how to update my android market to google play pathogens that surround us every day.
When these agents are unable to get through the natural repellents which engineers create for each life form, they can work on becoming stronger and more resistant to the changes made, creating new issues for plants and animals which are not benefiting from the genetic engineering process.
It creates the potential for unwanted side effects. Penn State University suggests that when genetic engineers try to tackle one problem with plant or animal cellular structure, it creates an opportunity for additional side effects to occur which may be unanticipated or unwanted. It may become possible to modify an organism so that it requires less water for survival. This outcome occurs at the expense of creating a life form that is now intolerant to direct sunlight. Even though our predictive qualities in this field are increasing, we still do not know what happens when we artificially advance the evolution of life.
It would create an unfavorable level of diversity. Have you heard that diversity is what gives us strength? This observation is generally true because having differences in our genetic structures reduces the chances of an unwanted mutation occurring. This positive outlook occurs naturally through the evolutionary process.
The Problem: Poorly Regulated and Harmful to Environmental Health
What is a marketed use of genetic engineering? a. insecticides b. insulin c. herbicides d. cleaning up oil spills e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The Technology of Genes Difficulty Level: Easy 2. Strawberries have been genetically engineered a. as hybrids with blueberries. b. in a variety of colors. Genetic engineering is the process which allows scientists to alter the structure of genes in a living organism. Through the use of deliberate modifications that occur because of a direct manipulation of DNA, it becomes possible to create changes in life forms to benefit each species and any others that may interact with them in some way. Genetic engineering is often used in combination with traditional breeding to produce the genetically engineered plant varieties on the market today. For thousands of .
Feed Your Mind Main Page. Genetic engineering is often used in combination with traditional breeding to produce the genetically engineered plant varieties on the market today.
For thousands of years, humans have been using traditional modification methods like selective breeding and cross-breeding to breed plants and animals with more desirable traits. For example, early farmers developed cross-breeding methods to grow corn with a range of colors, sizes, and uses. Most of the foods we eat today were created through traditional breeding methods.
But changing plants and animals through traditional breeding can take a long time, and it is difficult to make very specific changes. After scientists developed genetic engineering in the s, they were able to make similar changes in a more specific way and in a shorter amount of time. PDF KB. Circa BCE Humans use traditional modification methods like selective breeding and cross-breeding to breed plants and animals with more desirable traits. This policy describes how the U. Not all are still available for sale.
Genetic engineering is a process that involves:. Fact Sheet. The following example gives a general idea of the steps it takes to create a GMO plant. To produce a GMO plant, scientists first identify what trait they want that plant to have, such as resistance to drought, herbicides, or insects. Then, they find an organism plant, animal, or microorganism that already has that trait within its genes.
In this example, scientists wanted to create insect-resistant corn to reduce the need to spray pesticides. They identified a gene in a soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Bt , which produces a natural insecticide that has been in use for many years in traditional and organic agriculture.
Next, scientists use tools to insert the gene into the DNA of the plant. By inserting the Bt gene into the DNA of the corn plant, scientists gave it the insect resistance trait.
In the laboratory, scientists grow the new corn plant to ensure it has adopted the desired trait insect resistance. If successful, scientists first grow and monitor the new corn plant now called Bt corn because it contains a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouses and then in small field tests before moving it into larger field tests.
GMO plants go through in-depth review and tests before they are ready to be sold to farmers. Learn more about the process for creating genetically engineered microbes and genetically engineered animals.
Scientists are developing new ways to create new varieties of crops and animals using a process called genome editing. These techniques can make it easier and quicker to make changes that were previously done through traditional breeding. Scientists can use these newer genome editing tools to make crops more nutritious, drought tolerant, and resistant to insect pests and diseases. Did you know? Identify To produce a GMO plant, scientists first identify what trait they want that plant to have, such as resistance to drought, herbicides, or insects.
Copy After scientists find the gene with the desired trait, they copy that gene. For Bt corn, they copied the gene in Bt that would provide the insect-resistance trait. Insert Next, scientists use tools to insert the gene into the DNA of the plant.
This new trait does not change the other existing traits. Grow In the laboratory, scientists grow the new corn plant to ensure it has adopted the desired trait insect resistance.