In a first, a person’s immune system fought HIV — and won
The first weeks after being infected with HIV, you may feel feverish, achy, and sick. These flu-like symptoms are your body’s first reaction to the HIV infection. During this time, there’s a lot of the virus in your system, so it’s really easy to spread HIV to other people. HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online, or your health care provider may be able to order one for you.
HIV enters the bloodstream by way of body fluids, such as blood or semen. Once in the blood, the virus invades and kills CD4 cells. CD4 cells are key cells of the immune system.
When these cells are destroyed, the body is less able to fight disease. AIDS occurs when the number of CD4 cells decreases below a certain level and the person gets sick with diseases that the immune system would normally fight off. These diseases include pneumonia, certain types of cancer, and harmful infections. Unless a woman gets tested, she may never know she is infected with HIV until she gets sick.
HIV infection can be treated, but not cured. Taking anti-HIV drugs can help people with HIV infection stay healthy for a long time and can decrease how to increase traffic for my website chance of passing the virus to others.
There is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection. During pregnancy, HIV can pass through the placenta and infect the fetus. When a woman goes into labor, the amniotic sac breaks her water breaks. Once this occurs, the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby increases. Most babies who get HIV from their mothers become infected around the time of delivery.
Breastfeeding also can transmit the virus to the baby. You and your health care professional will discuss things you can do to reduce the risk of passing HIV to your baby. They include the following:. Have your baby by cesarean delivery if lab tests show that your level of HIV is high. Treatment during pregnancy has two goals: 1 to protect your own health, and 2 to help prevent passing HIV to your fetus. Many combinations of drugs are used to manage HIV infection.
This is called a "drug regimen. Drugs used to treat HIV infection may cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headaches, and muscle aches.
Less common side effects include anemialiver damage, and bone problems such as osteoporosis. While unusual, drugs used to treat HIV may affect the development of the fetus. However, not taking medication greatly increases the chances of passing the virus to your fetus.
Both a high viral load and a low number of CD4 cells mean there is a greater risk of passing HIV to your fetus and a greater risk of you becoming sick. However, even if you have a low viral load, it is still possible to pass HIV to the fetus. If how to regas a freezer partner also is infected with HIV, condoms help protect you and your partner from other infections.
If your partner is not infected with HIV, in addition to using condoms, there are some drugs that partners can take that may decrease their risk of becoming what are the first signs of hiv. Having a cesarean delivery may carry extra risks if you are HIV positive. Women with low CD4 cell counts have weak immune systems, so they are at greater risk of infection after surgery. The incision may heal more slowly. Drugs to prevent infection are given during cesarean delivery.
The baby has HIV infection if two of these test results are positive. The baby does not have HIV infection if two of these test results are negative. Another type of HIV test is done when the baby is 12—18 months old.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS : A group of signs and symptoms, usually of severe infections, occurring in a person whose immune system has been damaged by infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Anemia : Abnormally low levels of blood or red blood cells in the bloodstream.
Most cases are caused by iron deficiency, or lack of iron. Fetus : The stage of prenatal development that starts 8 weeks after fertilization and lasts until the end of pregnancy. Osteoporosis : A condition in which the how to get a sagittarius man to marry you become so fragile that they break more easily.
Placenta : Tissue that provides nourishment to and takes waste away from the fetus. Copyright by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All rights reserved. Read copyright and permissions information. This information is designed as an educational aid for the public. It offers current information and opinions related to women's health. It is not intended as a statement of the standard of care. It does not explain all of the proper treatments or methods of care. It is not a substitute for the advice of a physician.
They include the following: Take a combination of anti-HIV drugs during your pregnancy as prescribed. Take anti-HIV drugs during labor and delivery as needed. Give anti-HIV drugs to your baby after birth. Do not breastfeed. Your viral load is the amount of HIV that you have in your body. Article continues below Advertisement.
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About HIV & AIDS
In a first, a person’s immune system fought HIV — and won These people have no symptoms or clear signs of damage from the virus. “It’s not even that we’re talking about a few months. Herpes outbreaks are no fun, but the first one is the worst. Repeat outbreaks are usually shorter and less painful. Most people with herpes get fewer outbreaks as time goes on, and some stop having them altogether. Herpes symptoms may be more painful and last longer in people with illnesses that damage your immune system — like leukemia and HIV. Jul 04, · Fatigue, fever, joint pain and weight changes are usually the first signs of lupus. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its healthy tissue. It affects joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys and blood vessels, leading to inflammation and tissue damage of the affected organs.
With current methods of testing for HIV, incorrect diagnoses are very uncommon. But in rare cases, some people do receive a false-positive or false-negative result after being tested for HIV. In general, it takes multiple tests to accurately diagnose HIV.
A positive test result for HIV will require additional testing to confirm the result. In some cases, a negative test result for HIV may also require additional testing. Read on to learn more about HIV test accuracy, how testing works, and the different testing options that are available. In general, current HIV tests are highly accurate. HIV test accuracy depends on several factors, including:. When a person first contracts HIV, the infection is considered acute.
Over time, it becomes chronic and easier to diagnose with tests. If a person with HIV is tested before the window period has passed, it can produce false negative results.
Some types of tests have shorter window periods than others. They can detect HIV sooner after exposure to the virus. This can happen if laboratory staff mislabel or improperly handle a test sample. It can also happen if someone misinterprets the results of a test.
Taking part in a recent HIV vaccine study or living with certain medical conditions might also lead to a false-positive test result. If the first HIV test result is positive, a healthcare provider will order follow-up testing. This will help them learn if the first result was accurate or a false positive.
A false-negative result happens when a person who has HIV receives a negative result after being tested for the condition. False-negative results are less common than false-positive results, although both are rare. A false-negative result can happen if a person gets tested too soon after contracting HIV. Tests for HIV are only accurate after a certain amount of time has passed since the person has been exposed to the virus.
This window period varies from one type of test to another. If a person gets tested for HIV within three months of being exposed to the virus and the result is negative, the U. This will help determine if the first test result was accurate or a false negative. Several types of tests are available for HIV. Each type of test checks for different signs of the virus. Some types of test can detect the virus sooner than others.
Most HIV tests are antibody tests. When the body is exposed to viruses or bacteria, the immune system produces antibodies. If a person contracts HIV, it takes time for the body to produce enough antibodies to be detected by an antibody test. Most people develop detectable levels of antibodies within 3 to 12 weeks after contracting HIV, but it may take longer for some people.
Some HIV antibody tests are performed on blood drawn from a vein. To perform this type of antibody test, a healthcare professional may draw a sample of blood and send it to a lab for analysis. It may take several days for the results to become available.
Other HIV antibody tests are performed on blood collected through finger pricking or on saliva. Some of these tests have been designed for rapid use in a clinic or at home. The results of rapid antibody tests are typically available within 30 minutes. In general, tests from venous blood can detect HIV sooner than tests done from a finger prick or saliva. If a person contracts HIV, the virus will produce a protein known as p24 before the immune system produces antibodies.
Most people develop detectable levels of p24 antigen 13 to 42 days about 2 to 6 weeks after contracting HIV. For some people, the window period may be longer. The results may take several days to come back. It can detect genetic material from the virus in blood. Most people have detectable levels of the virus in their blood within 7 to 28 days after contracting HIV. Healthcare providers may screen for HIV as part of a routine check-up, or people can request to be tested. For example, people who have multiple sexual partners have a higher risk of being exposed to HIV, and may choose more frequent testing, as often as every 3 months.
If the result from an initial HIV test is positive, a healthcare provider will order follow-up testing to learn if the result is accurate. If the first test was conducted at home, a healthcare provider will draw a sample of blood to test in a lab.
If the first test was done in a lab, follow-up testing may be conducted on the same blood sample at the lab. If the second test result is positive, a healthcare provider can help explain the treatment options for HIV.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the long-term outlook and reduce the chances of developing complications from HIV. In general, the chances of misdiagnosis for HIV are low. They can help explain the test results and recommend next steps. For people at higher risk of contracting HIV, a healthcare provider can also recommend strategies for lowering the risk of infection. Learn how to have a safe and healthy relationship with a partner who has HIV.
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